It typically takes less than 10 minutes from the issue of the RunInstances call to the point where all requested instances begin their boot sequences. This time depends on a number of factors including: the size of your AMI, the number of instances you are launching, and how recently you have launched that AMI. Images launched for the first time may take slightly longer to boot.
The design that you create to program your FPGA is called an Amazon FPGA Image (AFI). AWS provides a service to register, manage, copy, query, and delete AFIs. After an AFI is created, it can be loaded on a running F1 instance. You can load multiple AFIs to the same F1 instance, and can switch between AFIs in runtime without reboot. This lets you quickly test and run multiple hardware accelerations in rapid sequence. You can also offer to other customers on the AWS Marketplace a combination of your FPGA acceleration and an AMI with custom software or AFI drivers.
X2gd is ideal for customers with Arm-compatible memory bound scale-out workloads such as Redis and Memcached in-memory databases, that need low latency memory access and benefit from more memory per vCPU. X2gd is also well suited for relational databases such as PostgreSQL, MariaDB, MySQL, and RDS Aurora. Customers who run memory intensive workloads such as Apache Hadoop, real-time analytics, and real-time caching servers will benefit from 1:16 vCPU to memory ratio of X2gd. Single threaded workloads such as EDA backend verification jobs will benefit from physical core and more memory of X2gd instances, allowing them to consolidate more workloads on to a single instance. X2gd instance also feature local NVMe SSD block storage to improve response times by acting as a caching layer.
Note: Remember to check lsblk every time you reconnect to your server before making changes. The /dev/sd* and /dev/hd* disk identifiers will not necessarily be consistent between boots, which means there is some danger of partitioning or formatting the wrong disk if you do not verify the disk identifier correctly.
Many computers these days come with two hard drives, one SSD for fast boot speeds, and one that can be used for storage. My Dell G5 gaming laptop is a great example with a 128GB NAND SSD and a 1TB SSD. When building out a Linux installation I have a few options. Option 1: Follow the steps and install Ubuntu on one SSD hard drive for quick boot times and better speed performance when opening files or moving data. Then mounting the second drive and copying files to it when I want to backup files or need to move files off the first drive. Or, Option 2: install Ubuntu on an older hard drive with more storage but slower start up speeds and use the 128GB as a small mount point.
This guide can also be used for other use cases as well. An example would be old or cheaper laptops that don't have hard drives with high RPM spinning SSDs. If your computer is a bit on the older side (and has an SD card slot) but you want to utilize faster boot times, you can go out and buy an SD card and install the /root partition onto that for quick boot times, and the /home partition on the main drive for storage. This guide, like Linux, can be used for many other use cases as well.
In this guide we will start by downloading the latest version of Ubuntu Linux, our distro of choice. You can choose other distros, but the images and steps may vary. The Ubuntu version at the time of this guide is 20.04.1. Once you have the ISO file downloaded you can then download the Etcher USB imaging tool. I have found this to be the quickest and most straightforward easy-to-use tool for creating bootable USB images on any operating system.
The installation process from here is the standard installation. Select a time zone, create a username, computer host name, create a password. Once completed, you're all set. You can remove the USB thumb drive and reboot your machine when prompted.
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A menu interface listing preset boot commands, with a programmabletimeout, is available. There is no fixed limit on the number of bootentries, and the current implementation has space for several hundred.
grub-mkconfig does have some limitations. While adding extracustom menu entries to the end of the list can be done by editing/etc/grub.d/40_custom or creating /boot/grub/custom.cfg,changing the order of menu entries or changing their titles may requiremaking complex changes to shell scripts stored in /etc/grub.d/. Thismay be improved in the future. In the meantime, those who feel that itwould be easier to write grub.cfg directly are encouraged to do so(see Booting, and Shell-like scripting), and to disable any systemprovided by their distribution to automatically run grub-mkconfig.
The GRUB graphical menu supports themes that can customize the layout andappearance of the GRUB boot menu. The theme is configured through a plaintext file that specifies the layout of the various GUI components (includingthe boot menu, timeout progress bar, and text messages) as well as theappearance using colors, fonts, and images. Example is available in docs/example_theme.txt
This is the core image of GRUB. It is built dynamically from the kernelimage and an arbitrary list of modules by the grub-mkimageprogram. Usually, it contains enough modules to access /boot/grub,and loads everything else (including menu handling, the ability to loadtarget operating systems, and so on) from the file system at run-time. Themodular design allows the core image to be kept small, since the areas ofdisk where it must be installed are often as small as 32KB.
Basically, the menu interface provides a list of boot entries tothe user to choose from. Use the arrow keys to select the entry ofchoice, then press RET to run it. An optional timeout isavailable to boot the default entry (the first one if not set), which isaborted by pressing any key.
The environment block is a preallocated 1024-byte file, which normally livesin /boot/grub/grubenv (although you should not assume this). At boottime, the load_env command (see load_env) loads environmentvariables from it, and the save_env (see save_env) commandsaves environment variables to it. From a running system, thegrub-editenv utility can be used to edit the environment block.
Insert keystrokes into the keyboard buffer when booting. Sometimes anoperating system or chainloaded boot loader requires particular keys to bepressed: for example, one might need to press a particular key to enter"safe mode", or when chainloading another boot loader one might sendkeystrokes to it to navigate its menu.
If you decide on one of our VPS Hosting plans, you will have access to an operating environment that is tailored to support your application or software needs. You'll be able to install any apps yourself in no time, via root access. Typical use cases might be as: 2b1af7f3a8